**THERMODYNAMIC MODEL**

**THERMODYNAMIC MODEL**

The thermodynamic model was performed through elemental simulation units.

It was developed in a partial 2D flow elements for the solution of the thermal flow equation.

The earth thermal flow is correlated in a dynamic system with the fluid flow inside the pipe

in order to establish a continuous energy stream in a solid/fluid thermal exchange.

The feeding surface is simulated by 2D feeding disks perpendicular to the flow line.

The simulation have been finalized based on standard values of the thermal capacity and

conductivity of standard formations.

These parameters will be recalculated before each project based on 3D seismic measurements

and available well log measurements.

During the drilling project these parameters will be continually measured and updated in realtime.

**NUMERICAL SIMULATION**

Unit volumes used for simulation are conformed to the requirements

of electricity production power plants requiring a standard flow

rate of 100 Liter/Second and a temperature of 120° C to produce

about 3-4 MWatt electricity depending on the project system and

plant type, efficiency and manufacture.

The calculation has been performed in a conservative manner accounting

for heterogeneity and anisotropy of thermal flow through formations

consisting of aggregates of different thermal conductivity and thermal

capacity mineral components and possible thermal barrier at the casing/

cement/formation interface.

The volumes account for the well geometry consisting of standard 7″

Liner. The flowing component has been discretized into units.

Each block unit have to absorb a total 30 * 10-6 Joules from the

formation during an equivalent circulation time.

The total earth thermal flow Q has to equalize the flow rate of the fluid

through the casing and the lung volume and has to be compensated from the

earth thermal flow at the external near-field interface.

The thermal system is constrained by the thermal conductivity and capacity

of the formation aggregate and the flow component consequently adapted.

** **

**EFFICIENCY PARAMETERS PRODUCED BY THE SYSTEM (APPROXIMATED VALUES +/- 3%)**

**Flow unit**:

~30 * 10^{6} Joules (29.260.000 Joules)

**Thermal rate**:

~15 * 10^{3} Joules/Sec (14.630 Joules/Sec)

**Radial thermal conductivity of the 1st unit formation sector / area (average):**

~10^{5} Joules/Sec (102.885 Joules/Sec)

**Radial thermal conductivity of the 1st unit formation sector / area (worst case):**

~4.6 * 10^{4} Joules/Sec (46298 Joules/Sec)

**Recharge radial thermal capacity content on 2nd unit formation sector at 120°C (Vol) (average):**

~10^{5} Joules (105504 Joules)

**T Gradient perturbation @ external far field**:

25-30%

**Far field unit energy content:**

~34 * 10^{9} Joules (33.912.000.000 Joules)

**Far field generating surface – volume energy content:**

~27 * 10^{16} Joules

**Worst case regeneration time:**

3´ cycle.

Δt = 70°C

Simulation properties are intended for a standard pilot project based on realistic thermal formation parameters.

SCHEMATIC DDS_1 ELEMENTAL UNITS

Lung units allow to add over 30% additional efficiency to the main flow system.

DeepDirectivity Systems 1 – All Rights Reserved